It is difficult to overestimate the importance of testosterone in the male body. Indeed, in fact, it is this hormone that is responsible for the manifestation of male signs, both in the physiological and psychological aspects, plays a key role in maintaining many body functions.
Androgenic and anabolic effects of testosterone:
- The growth and development of the genitals. In adolescence, it is testosterone that is responsible for enlarging the penis, developing the testes and prostate;
- Reinforced hair on the face, trunk, extremities, male pubic hair type (hair has a diamond shape, with hair extending to the navel), as well as the formation of bald patches and bald patches (the effect of dihydrotestosterone);
- Breaking voice. Under the influence of testosterone, the vocal cords thicken, which makes the voice of men low;
- Muscle development and growth. Testosterone promotes protein synthesis, which leads to pronounced muscle growth. A decrease in testosterone inevitably leads to muscular hypotrophy;
- Maintaining bone density. Osteoporosis in older men is largely associated with age-related androgen deficiency.
The effect of testosterone on behavior and central nervous system:
- Libido formation;
- Mood, lack of stress and depression. Testosterone is an antagonist hormone for cortisol, a stress hormone;
- The ability to concentrate, analytical thinking, good memory and quick thinking are necessary for men for hunting, fishing, etc.
- Orientation in space. As a rule, men are better oriented in space than women. This is due to the ancient instinct of the hunter, when the men went long distances from the settlement, to get food;
- Increased vitality and performance is necessary for men for physical and mental activity;
- The formation of a stereotype of sexual behavior (aggressive, warlike behavior, confidence, initiative).
The effect of testosterone on sexual and reproductive function:
- Maintenance of spermatogenesis;
- Erectile function.
Other effects of testosterone:
- The distribution of adipose tissue in the upper torso;
- Accelerated metabolism. Thanks to testosterone, the male body has a more pronounced metabolism, which eliminates the deposition of excess fat, despite the fact that a man needs more food for existence;
- The increased activity of the sweat glands is due to the fact that the activities of men are associated with physical labor: hunting, construction, logging, etc.
- Fast wound healing
- Increased immunity. Testosterone contributes to the increased formation of red blood cells.
The physiological effects of testosterone depend not only on the action of testosterone itself (a direct effect on the target organs), but also on its active metabolites (table 1). Active metabolites are primarily understood as dihydrotestosterone in men , which is the most active metabolite of testosterone (its androgenic activity is 2.5-4 times greater than testosterone), and estrogens, in particular estradiol . Thus, in order for testosterone to have a full spectrum of biological activity, metabolic processes with the formation of active metabolites are necessary.
Table 1 – The main effects of testosterone, estradiol and dihydrotestosterone in the male body.
|Testosterone effects||Effects of estradiol||The effects of dihydrotestosterone|
|Libido||Sexual behavior||Prostate hypertrophy|
|Regulation of the secretion of LH, FSH||Regulation of the secretion of LH, FSH||Acne|
|Effect on blood lipids||Effect on blood lipids||Alopecia|
|Hair growth on the face, trunk, limbs||Hair growth on the head||Effect on the central nervous system: mood, memory, attention|
|Maintaining bone density||Maintaining bone density|
|Growth, development and maintenance of muscle tissue, kidneys, liver, bones|
|Effect on the central nervous system: mood, memory, attention|
As you can see, the effect of testosterone on men is huge, and is able to fully determine the physical and psychological qualities of an individual. Therefore, all men, without exception, should take care of its sufficient level.